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“À la recherche d’une propriété littéraire et artistique dans la Chine ancienne”, Revue Francophone de la Propriété Intellectuelle, Décembre 2016, n° 3, pp. 49-62 [in French].

Deux mille ans d’une histoire chinoise du livre, marqués par une progression constante de son marché, n’ont-ils jamais façonné une perception ou mieux, une conscience, susceptibles de faire émerger l’idée de propriété littéraire et artistique ? Le présent article s’inscrit dans un débat qui vise, d’une part, à analyser la perception que pouvaient avoir les artistes, les auteurs et les éditeurs de la Chine ancienne vis-à-vis de la reproduction ou de l’imitation de leurs œuvres et, d’autre part, à s’interroger sur la possibilité de faire entendre leurs voix auprès des autorités. L’auteur conclut qu’une propriété littéraire paraît avoir été reconnue, à tout le moins, à un niveau local et sous une forme clairsemée et embryonnaire.


The Uniform Domain Names Dispute Resolution Policy (UDRP) was adopted in 1999 to address the shortcomings of the existing system at that time. Fifteen years later, times are marked by an unprecedented increase of domain names resources. The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) is in the process of liberalizing the creation of new top level domains and new technologies now allow the registration of internationalized domain names (IDNs). Resources will soon be almost endless and extremely varied. However, this new environment also creates unprecedented opportunities for cybersquatters. We need to question the effectiveness of the UDRP model now. This paper proposes that international arbitration would be a better mechanism to resolve domain names disputes.

This article discusses the impacts of the French law for simplification and improvement of law enacted on 17 May 2011 (the Law) on the resolution of intellectual property disputes. The authors argue that the Law has positive effects in simplifying and harmonizing intellectual property disputes: first, the Law gives an exclusive jurisdiction for intellectual property disputes to the tribunals of the first instance; second, the Law expressly widens the scope of arbitrability of intellectual property disputes. The lawmaker has clearly attempted to harmonize the regime of arbitrability for intellectual property disputes, regardless of the subject matter (i.e., disputes concerning copyrights, patents, trademarks, geographical indications or plant varieties). As a result, civil actions and claims relating to intellectual property rights, including those addressing a related issue of unfair competition, may now be settled by arbitration as provided in articles 2059 and 2060 of the Civil Code. The authors also point out the limits of the Law. For instance, whether disputes concerning the validity of a patent are arbitrable remains unaddressed by the law, which requires further clarification.

This paper argues for the strength of the arbitration clause under French law, leaving little room for a reluctant party to attack its validity before the judges, through the lens of a decision by the Douai Court of Appeal on 17 September 2009. This remarkable decision reaffirmed clearly all the solutions adopted by the Cour de cassation on the following issues: i) there is an implicit consent to the arbitration clause ii) the prevalence of an arbitration clause over a clause conferring jurisdiction on civil courts; iii) the jurisdiction of the arbitral tribunal to rule on claims prior to the opening of bankruptcy, and iv) the jurisdiction of the arbitral tribunal to rule on tort disputes.

“Domaining” refers to domain name speculation, which results in the registration or the acquisition of domain names. Those domain names can reproduce or imitate a trademark or a celebrity name; they also can reproduce a generic word or even have no particular meaning. But they all must generate some value since the purpose of the “domainer” is to earn money, either by selling them or by connecting them to some “parking” web pages that are able to generate commercial links. This paper discusses the business model of the web companies that offer such services, and analyzes the risks and liabilities of the various actors in the business of domaining and parking websites.

This paper examines why the French Constitutional Court has declared that the domain names legal framework did not comply with the provisions of the Constitution. Upon a close examination of the domain names legal framework, the author agrees with the conclusion of the Court and argues that the strong and abusive protection of intellectual property rights may prevent third parties to exercise some fundamental rights such as freedom of enterprise and freedom of speech.

This paper discusses the solutions adopted by the French Supreme Court (Cour de cassation) in two decisions concerning the same case. The author agrees with the Supreme Court’s analysis, and highlights the rationale adopted by the Cour de cassation from the following aspects: i) the lack of enforceability per se of an arbitration award rendered under the auspices of the International Court of Arbitration of the International Chamber of Commerce, despite some contractual provisions in its rules; ii) if it is true that the criminal proceedings take precedence over civil proceedings, the party who invokes this principle shall explain what would be the consequences of the criminal proceedings over the civil proceedings; and iii) the Lugano Convention of 16 September 1988 “on jurisdiction and the enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters” does not apply to judicial decisions concerning the field of arbitration.